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  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly prevalent tumor worldwide. Amphiregulin is a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its elevation is linked to different inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Th...

    Authors: Amira Isaac, Sherif Mounir Mohamed, Osama Ashraf Ahmed, Ahmed Gamal Mohamed Hassan and Hany Samir Rasmy
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:46
  2. The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV), insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic syndrome has been extensively investigated. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have a high sustained virologic response (SVR...

    Authors: Tarek Yosef, Wesam Ahmed Ibrahim, Ahmed El-Ghandour, Soha Attia and Sarah El-Nakeep
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:45
  3. Hypercalcemia is known to cause acute kidney injury (AKI). Literature related to hypercalcemic AKI is predominantly in the form of case reports and case series. The purpose of this study is to find the inciden...

    Authors: Nucksheeba Aziz Bhat, Farhat Mustafa, Rayees Yousuf Sheikh and Imtiyaz Wani
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:36
  4. Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting with digital ischemia and gangrene is a rare manifestation. Paraneoplastic manifestations are rare in Hodgkin’s lymphoma but can occur in the form of paraneoplastic cerebellar deg...

    Authors: Swaroopa Deme, Bhaskar Kakarla, Venkateswar Rao P., Raju YSN and Nageswara Rao M.
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:44
  5. Indirect calorimetry is the reference method for measuring resting energy expenditure (REE), but the necessary equipment and technical expertise are not always available. Meanwhile, the NUTrition Risk in the C...

    Authors: Elham Sobhy, Radwa Abdel Kader, Alshaimaa Aboulfotouh, Mohammed Eshra and Mohamed Sayed
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:35
  6. Diabetes is a rapidly growing health problem worldwide. In 2019, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates that Egypt is the 9th country worldwide with about 8,850,400 cases and a prevalence of 15....

    Authors: Mai Mohamed Azzam, Adel Alwehedy Ibrahim and Mohammed I. Abd El-Ghany
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:33
  7. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recent pandemic infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 may lead to acute kidney injury (AKI).

    Authors: Hayder M. Al-kuraishy and Ali I. Al-Gareeb
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:34
  8. Hepatitis C virus and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis in Egypt. Increasing aging population is a worldwide issue, and societies are facing various problems, in...

    Authors: Ahmed Abdelghani, Maha Hosam El-Din Ibrahim, Osama Mohamady Mohamed, Sobhi Eid Rizk and Rabab Mahmoud Ahmed
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:32
  9. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has been recently defined as a clinical form including acute hepatic decompensation and high 28-day mortality. ACLF usually follows a precipitating event on the background...

    Authors: Marwa Lotfi El Sayed, Tarek El Sayed Gouda, E. L. Sayed Abdel Maksood Khalil, Mohammed Mohammed El Sayed Al Arman and Islam Eid Mohamed
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:31
  10. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with debilitating complications. Patients with diabetes are recommended to take various self-management decisions and carry out complex care activities. Diabetes sel...

    Authors: Reham Abo Emara, Madeha Hamed, Mohamed Awad and Wael Zeid
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:30
  11. Angiogenesis is the development of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature, which is important in normal developmental processes. Angiogenesis is a key step in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. A...

    Authors: Gowtham Kumar Subbaraj, Yasam Santhosh Kumar and Langeswaran Kulanthaivel
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:29
  12. Prediabetes is considered a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM), leading to microvascular and cardiovascular disorders. Myocardial performance index (MPI) is a non-invasive Doppler method for the dete...

    Authors: Hossam Eldin M. Mahmoud, Mohamed Alsenbesy, Gehad Osama Fawzy Sayed, Abdulla Eliaw Mohamed Ali and Ahlam M. Sabra
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:28
  13. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on rising trend in developing countries like India. In type 2 diabetes patients, albuminuria has been shown to predict development of dysfunction in other organ systems s...

    Authors: Jiteshri Mehta, Varsha Y. Godbole, Kedar G. Mehta and A. Lalithambigai
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:27
  14. Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem. Cardiac and renal diseases interact in a complex bidirectional manner in both acute and chronic settings. Renal dysfunction in the setting of heart failure, termed...

    Authors: Ahmed Aly Obiedallah, Ashraf Anwar E. L. Shazly, Noura Gamal Nasr and Essam M. Abdel Aziz
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:25
  15. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and thyroid dysfunction have a degree of close association, and each of them affects the other. Due to the associated cardiovascular events, MetS has increased morbidity and mortality...

    Authors: Gehad Abd El-Shaker Abd El-Hay, Salah Abdelazim Argoon and Naglaa Mohamed M. A. Mousa
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:24
  16. Dual left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. To date, eleven variants of dual LAD have been described with three published reports of type X dual LAD. Here, we describe a n...

    Authors: Anish Bhargav, Parminder S. Otaal and Manphool K. Singhal
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:22
  17. Melanosis coli is a benign condition characterized by deposition of lipofuscin in colonic mucosa due to long-term laxative use.

    Authors: Anoop K V
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:23
  18. Sixty percent of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients require intestinal resection, and 20% of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients undergo proctocolectomy for medically refractory disease. Scarcity of literature about p...

    Authors: Khaled Hamdy Abd El Megeed, Shereen Abou Bakr Saleh, Ahmed Elkattary Mohamed and Christina Alphonse Anwar
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:19
  19. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). There is good evidence that microbiota plays a predominant role in the IBS pathophysiology. The aim of...

    Authors: Iman Mohamed Fawzy, Eman Mohamed ElGindy, Omar Abdel-Samie and Heba Aly
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:20
  20. Pruritus is a common and often distressing symptom in patients with chronic kidney disease. Though the pathogenesis of uremic pruritus remains poorly understood, systemic inflammation has presented itself as o...

    Authors: Sahar Mahmoud Shawky, Reeham Abdel Aziz Abdel Hamid and Lina Essam Khedr
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:17
  21. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug, recently used in COVID-19 treatment. Also it is considered over many years the cornerstone in treating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in adults and childre...

    Authors: Mohammed Salah Eldin Abdelbaky, Tarek Ahmad El Mamoun, Fatma Ibrahim Mabrouk and Rasha Mohamad Hassan
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:18
  22. Very few studies have investigated the role of PTX3 and PVT1 genetic polymorphisms and their association in the progression of diabetic kidney diseases. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a prominent reason of end-...

    Authors: Sindhu Varghese and Gowtham Kumar Subburaj
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:21
  23. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious complication with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We aimed to study the different predictors of CIN and determine the cutoff point of contrast...

    Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Ghany, Ghada Morsy and Yehia Taha Kishk
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:16
  24. The occurrence of bleeding gastrointestinal angioectasia in elderly patients with degenerative calcific aortic stenosis is one of the most challenging clinical scenarios. A number of studies have shown that th...

    Authors: Nelson Musilanga, Zhou Hongli and Cai Hongyu
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:15
  25. Delirium is a common geriatric problem associated with poor outcomes. Subsyndromal delirium (SSD) is characterized by the presence of certain symptoms of delirium yet, not satisfying the definition of full-blo...

    Authors: Maha Hosam El-Din Ibrahim, Manal Elmasry, Fady Nagy and Ahmed Abdelghani
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:14
  26. Reactive arthritis had been reported to occur after various vaccinations, including the tetanus toxoid vaccine; here, we report a case of ankylosing arthropathy suggested to be a complication of missed neglect...

    Authors: Mohamed A. Mahran, Ahmed A. Khalifa, Mohamed Eslam Elsherif and Omar Refai
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:13
  27. Behçet’s disease (BD) is also referred to as vascular BD when it frequently involves the heart and vessels. This study aimed to describe the cardiovascular manifestations in patients with BD and its correlatio...

    Authors: Nashwa Aly Morshedy, Dalia Fayez Mohammed, Fatma Mohammed Badr and Mohammed Abd El monem Teama
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:12
  28. Autoimmunity is used to cause by impairment of adaptive immunity alone, whereas autoinflammatory was originally defined as a consequence of unregulated innate immunity. So, the pathogenetic mechanisms of autoi...

    Authors: Emad M. El-Shebiny, Enas S. Zahran, Sabry A. Shoeib and Eman S. Habib
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:11
  29. Although the frequent respiratory affection in COVID-19, it is well established that it could be presented with a wide variation of gastrointestinal symptoms; however, it is the effect on the pancreas remains ...

    Authors: Mohamed-Naguib Wifi, Ahmed Nabil, Abeer Awad and Reham Eltatawy
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:10
  30. Poor glycaemic control is associated with a greater risk of development of heart failure in diabetic patients. We aimed to study the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic dysfunction in as...

    Authors: K. M. Hassan Ayman, A. Abdallah Mahmoud, A. Abdel-Mageed Eman, Sayed Marwa, M. Soliman Mona and T. Kishk Yehia
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:8
  31. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is an important inflammatory marker in diabetic nephropathy. Many studies assessed the association between MMP-9 gene polymorphism and different microvascular complications o...

    Authors: Kholoud Shalaby, Rania Bahriz, Nancy Mahsoub, Mohammed M. El-Arman and Ghada El-Said
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:7
  32. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is highly pathogenic, and clinical studies revealed that HDV infection aggravates the natural history of the underlying hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by progression to cirrhosis tha...

    Authors: Babajide B. Ajayi, Semsari Latbone, Iman U. Igwegbe, Ibrahim M. Kida, Babagana W. Goni, Oyebode O. Samuel, Joshua S. Dawurung, Hamidu M. Ibrahim, Ballah A. Danue, Idris Nasir Abdullahi and Bamidele S. Oderinde
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:5
  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Asmaa Gameel, Monir Bahgat, Seham Seif, Maha Habeeb, Mohammed Abd El-Ghany and Ahmed Youssef Altonbary
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:4

    The original article was published in The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:29

  34. This single-center randomized open-label clinical trial evaluates the effectiveness of doxycycline as a combination therapy for active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with methotrexate (MTX).

    Authors: Eman M. Ibrahem, Salwa S. El-gendi, Amal A. Mahmoud, Sherif M. Abdel-Aal and Hanan Sharaf El-Deen Mohammed
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:3
  35. Pellagra is a nutritional disorder due to deficiency of vitamin B3 (niacin) which is characterized by dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, and death. The most common site of dermatitis in pellagra is the Casal neck...

    Authors: Kandan Balamurugesan, Rajangam Ponprabha and Prem Davis
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:2
  36. A kidney biopsy is being increasingly performed for the diagnosis of renal diseases. It is a reasonably safe procedure that helps not only to reach the correct diagnosis based on histopathological findings but...

    Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Anita Kumari and Satish C. Agrawal
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:22
  37. In adults with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), high plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) were reported to be sensitive markers of infection. However, e...

    Authors: Ghada A. Mohamed, Mohamed Z. Abd-Elrahman, Rania Bahriz and Ahmed Albehairy
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:10
  38. The relation between metabolic syndrome (MS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is multifactorial, and the well-known risk factors can explain only about 25% of the disease as the relation between insulin resis...

    Authors: Yasser Gaber Metwally, Heba Kamal Sedrak and Inas Fahiem Shaltout
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:21
  39. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are frequently reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This study was done to describe electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in SLE patients with neuropsychiat...

    Authors: Howaida E. Mansour, Reem A. Habeeb, Noran O. El-Azizi, Heba H. Afeefy, Marwa A. Nassef, Ahmed A. Abd Alkader and Naglaa Afifi
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:11
  40. Obesity is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest challenges of human health. Many randomized trials and open-label human studies described conflicting results of gastric intra-muscular injections of botulinu...

    Authors: Asmaa Gameel, Monir Bahgat, Seham Seif, Maha Habeeb, Mohammed Abd El-Ghany and Ahmed Youssef Altonbary
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:29

    The Correction to this article has been published in The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:4

  41. COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the newly developed worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease with a high rate of mortality especiall...

    Authors: Shaimaa Elkholy, Mohamed-Naguib Wifi, Karim K. Maurice, Kerolos Youssif, Karim Mashhour, Shady N. Mashhour, Ahmed Nabil and Abeer Awad Abdellatif
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:28
  42. The relationship between coronary slow flow (CSF) and insulin resistance (IR) is still a subject of debate with conflicting data. So the aim was to assess the relationship between IR as measured by IR index (H...

    Authors: Yasser Gaber Metwally, Heba Kamal Sedrak and Inas Fahiem Shaltout
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:20
  43. Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare neoplasm, defined as lymphoma with the main bulk localized in the heart; diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type. It usually involves the pericard...

    Authors: Valentina Scheggi, Carlotta Mazzoni, Tiziano Mariani and Pier Luigi Stefàno
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:27
  44. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In Ireland alone, there are over 2500 new cases of lung cancer diagnosed each year. It ranks fourth among the most commo...

    Authors: Taha Khalid, Brendan Phelan and Ala Yousif
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:8
  45. Acute pancreatitis (AP) represents a serious clinical challenge as it can threaten the patient’s life if it is missed or improperly managed. Liraglutide is one of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists ...

    Authors: Mohammed Ali Gameil and Ahmed Hassan Elsebaie
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:26
  46. Chemerin a novel adipokine is linked to insulin resistance and adiposity which are major characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Authors: Mohamed Reda Halawa, Rania Said Abd El Baky, Yara Mohamed Eid, Merhan Samy Nasr, Bahaa Mahmoud Taha and Laila Mahmoud Ali Hendawy
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 32:18