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  1. Interleukin (IL)-36α and IL-38, two novel cytokines of the IL-1 family, have recently been proposed to have a pathophysiological significance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there is a paucity of ...

    Authors: Shahad W. Nassurat, Isam N. Salman and Ali H. Ad’hiah
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:24
  2. Medical malpractice is described as an error made by medical providers towards their patients. For many years, this form of negligence has permeated healthcare and continues to leave a negative impact. Medical...

    Authors: Mahmoud Ali and Branden Tejada
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:23
  3. Benign auto-immune illnesses include Evans syndrome (ES) and auto-immune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Despite being benign in nature, the patients’ livers are burdened by the disease’s chronicity and the accompany...

    Authors: Fatma Abozeid, Yasmine Shaaban, Mohamed Elbogdady and Esraa Jamal
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:22
  4. Inflammation is a cardinal mechanism of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a reliable indicator that plays a role in the progression of DKD. Monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) is also implic...

    Authors: Heba Mahmoud Mohamed Ibrahim, Heba Morad Bahgat, Deena Ahmed Sharshar and Tarek Abdel Azim Ramzy
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:21
  5. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a complex phenomenon commonly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, rarely, IRIS can develop with other diseases outside of HIV. We a...

    Authors: Hussain Hussain, Aya Fadel, Ekaterina Casmartino, John Sullivan, Amanda Fernandes, Samantha Garcia and Efrain Garcia
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:20
  6. Liver fibrosis results from chronic liver injury and is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen. It can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure.

    Authors: Tamer A. Addissouky, Majeed M. A. Ali, Ibrahim El Tantawy El Sayed and Yuliang Wang
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:19
  7. Fishbones are frequently swallowed by foreign objects that can penetrate the gastrointestinal tract. Nonetheless, it is quite uncommon for these fishbones to become lodged within the tract, resulting in the fo...

    Authors: Hussein Hassan Okasha, Ahmed Elsayed Alzamzamy, Hanane Delsa, Haitham fekry Othman, Ahmed sayed Alsibaie and Abeer Abdellatef
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:18
  8. The SARS-CoV-2 (corona) virus is evolving fast because of the scale at which it has infected people around the world. Updated data is needed to manage Covid-19 efficiently with limited resources. After thoroug...

    Authors: Ila Singh, Vaishali D. Kotasthane and Dhananjay S. Kotasthane
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:17
  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the prevailing primary liver tumor. To pick HCC at the initial stages is quite strenuous, despite the advent of serum biomarkers, mainly alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), to predict th...

    Authors: Amany N. Abbasy, Rasha Saeed, Mohamed M. El Shafei and Mohamed A. Abdel Aziz
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:16
  10. Diabetes vascular complications are classified as either macrovascular (cardiovascular disease) or microvascular (nephropathy). These complications considerably raise the risk of morbidity and death. Irisin is...

    Authors: Hala Kahla, Mai Abdel Karim Hussein, Noha Taha, Ayman Mohamed Hany and Mona Youssry
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:15
  11. Evaluation of hypercalcaemia in a patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging, especially in low-resource settings. Hormone assays should be interpreted with caution as CKD affects both parathyroi...

    Authors: Pramith Ruwanpathirana, Harsha Dissanayaka, Sachith Munasinghe, Dilushi Wijayaratne, Eranga Wijewickrama, Rushika D. Lanerolle and Prasad Katulanda
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:14
  12. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell-derived disorders manifested by cytopenias peripherally. MDS initiates an inflammatory process which lead to atherosclerosis. Patie...

    Authors: Alaa Efat, Sabry Shoeib, Raafat Abdelfattah, Faten Alaa-Eldeen, Shrief Ramadan, Aly ElKholy and Rana Wahb
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:13
  13. Hyperkalemia is an electrolyte abnormality with potentially life-threatening consequences. But all cases of hyperkalemia need not be symptomatic either. The feared consequence of hyperkalemia is that on the he...

    Authors: Abraham M. Ittyachen, Anjely Sukumaran, Ancy Peter, Binitha Baby and Dawn Anthony
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:12
  14. The Nipah virus, a highly pathogenic zoonotic pathogen, has once again surfaced in the state of Kerala, India, with recent cases reported in 2023. This article delves into the epidemiological details of these ...

    Authors: Shriyansh Srivastava, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Saurav Gurjar, Sachin Kumar, Yogesh Pandey, Sarvesh Rustagi, Aroop Mohanty and Ranjit Sah
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:11
  15. One of the most common emergencies seen in emergency departments is acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). It’s associated with more disease burden and mortality.

    Authors: Hekmat Nashat Shawky, Hala Mostafa Kamel, Zain Elabdeen Ahmed Sayed and Hossam Mahmoud Abdelwahab
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:10
  16. Smoking is a major preventable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Tobacco smoking induces atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, and arrhythmias. The impact of electronic cigarettes on ...

    Authors: Heba Ammar, Rania Hashish, Shrouk Mohamed Ali, Ahmed Salah Salem and Abeer Mohamed Hagras
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:9
  17. The clinical management of patients experiencing recurrent abdominal pain resembling biliary-type, but with negative findings on conventional transabdominal ultrasound (TUS), poses a challenge. In recent years...

    Authors: Ahmed Morad Hashim, Ahmed Nabil Ahmed, Yasser Mahmoud Esmail, Abeer Awad and Yasmine Abd Elfatah
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:8
  18. Primary Sjogren’s syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting mainly the exocrine glands, typically presenting with sicca syndrome, but systemic multi-organ manifestations are possible. The diagnosis is...

    Authors: H. Ikrou, F. Elkadah and H. Serhane
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:7
  19. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive failure of renal function with ongoing systemic inflammation. Inflammatory markers such as neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR)...

    Authors: Fathima Azra Aneez, Nifla Shariffdeen, Fathima Asra Haleem, Brammah R Thangarajah and Karunaithas Rasaratnam
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:6
  20. Limited and contradicting findings were observed on the effects of both metformin (MET) and pioglitazone (PIO) on adiponectin (ADP) levels. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized control trials to o...

    Authors: Roselle Arbas, Sofia Alexis Dayrit, Arah Dimalanta, John Ashley Flores, Arch Raphael Mañalac, Dinah Rose Soriano, Johana Vallo, Raphael Enrique Tiongco and Maria Ruth Pineda-Cortel
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:5
  21. The January 2023 COVID-19 omicron wave in China garnered wide publicity partly because it evaded most vaccines at that time and resulted in “breakthrough infections” in previously vaccinated individuals. This ...

    Authors: Erick Thokerunga, Peter Kisembo, Manzama-Esso Abi, Fangnon Firmin Fangninou, Juval Avala Ntsigouaye, Janet Oluwasola Bolorunduro, Chinaza Valerie Olovo, Marvellous Okeke, Samuel Emeka Peter, Innocent Okohi Agida, Moses Kumi, Emmanuel Kwateng Drokow and Temitope Emmanuel Komolafe
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:4
  22. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious, life-threatening condition known for its profound hydro electrolytic disturbances and multiple complications, including cerebral edema and circulatory collapse. While ...

    Authors: Abderrahmane Bouchaala, Jaouad Nguadi, Najat Mouine, Hicham Bouzelmat and Aatif Benyass
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:3
  23. Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects over 13 million individuals annually worldwide, resulting in 1.7 million deaths. The potential long-term progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal failure, as well...

    Authors: Arnab Purkayastha, Amit Kalwar, Zakia Firdaus, Bhaskar Kanti Nath and Prithwiraj Bhattacharjee
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2024 36:1
  24. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid found in fatty fish and fish oil supplements. Over the past few decades, research has suggested that EPA has various potential health benefits, particularly...

    Authors: Mahmoud Nassar, Aelia Jaffery, Bassel Ibrahim, Bahaaeldin Baraka and Hazem Abosheaishaa
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:81
  25. Authors: Salwa Seddik Hosny, Merhan Samy Nasr, Moataz M. W. Abd Elfattah, Samar Helmy Abdel Dayem and Rana Hashem Ibrahim
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:80

    The original article was published in The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:60

  26. Evaluation of the ability of estimated levels of fecal calprotectin (FCP), serum intelectin-1 (ITLN1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) to differentiate between patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and irritable ...

    Authors: Rizk Sayad R. Sarhan, Yasmin M. Marei and Yomna M. Marei
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:79
  27. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with 90% of these deaths reported in low- and middle-income countries. In Lebanon, the prevalence of COPD...

    Authors: S. Basma, A. Al-Hajje, P. Salameh, I. Nader and AM. Henaine
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:78
  28. Meningoencephalitis and herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are rare neurological and ocular complications of herpes zoster, respectively. Their co-occurrence is rarer, even in patients with retroviral disease (R...

    Authors: Aniruddha Jog, Vinayak M. Sawardekar and Arjun Agarwal
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:77
  29. A definitive diagnosis of soft tissue cystic swelling is challenging, as clinical and imaging findings might misguide the clinician and delay timely diagnosis and treatment as well as outcome. The radiological...

    Authors: Ahmed Suparno Bahar Moni, Tiffany Ann Johnson, Cade Ray McGarvey, Razia Sultana Ivy, Tasmia Jahan Yean and Muhamad Zabidi Ahmad
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:76
  30. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the development of cardiometabolic risk factors in some populations. However, few studies have investigated the role of BDNF and cardiometabolic ...

    Authors: Kwame Yeboah, Francys Frimpong Otu, Jennifer Adjepong Agyekum and Bartholomew Dzudzor
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:74
  31. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been regarded as a novel and minimally invasive therapy for the treatment of achalasia. Data from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and Arabic countries are s...

    Authors: Shaimaa Elkholy, Kareem Essam, Gina Gamal, Karim K. Maurice, Zeinab Abdellatif, Mohammed El-Sherbiny, Hany Haggag, Abeer Awad and Kerolis Yousef
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:73
  32. Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and disturbance of carbohydrate, fats, and protein metabolism. Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from reduced insulin secr...

    Authors: Shafat Iqbal Bhati, S. F. Haque, S. S. Siddiqi and Rizwan Ahmad
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:72
  33. Chronic liver disease and decompensated cirrhosis are associated with serious complications; spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is considered one of them that may lead to sepsis and adrenal insufficiency. This ...

    Authors: Mohamed Ramadan Asker, Loai Mohamed Elahwal, Sahar Mohy-Eldin Hazzaa, Shireen Ali Elhoseeny and Mohamed Elsayed Sarhan
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:71
  34. Heart failure is one of the major global health problems that we face today, worldwide. The main objective of our study is to evaluate the spectrum and prevalence of renal dysfunction among heart failure patie...

    Authors: Mohamed Osman Omar Jeele, Ahmed Abdirahman Hussein, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamud, Abdulkamil Abdullahi Adani and Mohamed Farah Yusuf Mohamud
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:70
  35. Aspergillosis is a common fungus that lives in soil and decaying vegetation. Inhalation of the spores causes infection mostly in immunocompromised patients. Invasive aspergillosis has an extremely high mortali...

    Authors: Hamdy Ibrahim, Safwat Abdel Maksod, Magdy Khorshed, Hanan Rady, Ahmed Alsisi, Adel Mohamed, Nasser Fouad, Ayman Hamed, Mohamed Hosny and Alaaa Al Amir
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:69
  36. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, an X-linked disorder that is more common in males, is the most prevalent blood enzyme deficiency, affecting 5% of the population worldwide. Its prevalence i...

    Authors: Ahmad AlShomar, Idris Sula, Waleed Al Abdulmonem and Nazmus Saquib
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:68
  37. Post-COVID-19 survivors may experience long-term symptoms known as Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). The PCAS symptom spectrum includes a wide range of symptoms affecting different organs. The prevalence an...

    Authors: Ahmed Azzam and Heba Khaled
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:67
  38. Role of Long non-coding RNAs in cancer research in the recent years have been highlighted with evidence to their involvement in cancer disease pathogenesis and progression. One of these emerging long non-codin...

    Authors: Nour Mohammed Rasheed, Howaida Attia Nounou, Soad Mohamed Eltabakh, Nahla A. M. Hamed and Ayman Ahmed Darwish
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:66
  39. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and hyperglycemia. The development of inflammatory disorders in T2DM triggers the activation of differen...

    Authors: Hayder M. Al-kuraishy, Ali I. Al-Gareeb, Majid S. Jabir and Salim Albukhaty
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:65
  40. Diabetic kidney disease is a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. The general recommendation for the subjects with DM is...

    Authors: Ahmed E. Mansour, Rasha O. Abdelmoniem, Ayman M. Elbadawy and Walaa M. Ibrahim
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:64
  41. Meningococcal meningitis (MM) is a medical emergency that progresses rapidly to cause life-threatening organ failure, and a high level of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and intervention with antibio...

    Authors: Hamdy Ibrahim, Safwat Abdel Maksod, Magdy Khorshed, Ahmed Alsisi, Nasser Fouad, Hanan Rady, Alaaa Al Amir, Adel Mohamed and Mohamed Hosny
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:63
  42. Celiac disease, an autoimmune condition triggered by gluten-containing diet, is known to primarily manifest as intestinal symptoms, but can also lead to extraintestinal complications, including endocrine abnor...

    Authors: Hameed Haidar Khan, Imran Ullah, Javeria Rufaq, Qaiser Wadood, Imad Majeed and Salman Khan
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:62
  43. Myalgia is one of the most common symptoms of COVID-19 infection. With the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic, emerging cases of COVID-related myositis have been reported. However, COVID-19-related myositis ...

    Authors: Watsachon Pangkanon, Natnicha Leelaviwat, Sakditad Saowapa, En-Dien Liao and J. Drew Payne
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:61
  44. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive, ocular disease affecting the retinal microvasculature accompanied by hyperglycaemia and different situations related to diabetes mellitus (DM) such as hypert...

    Authors: Salwa Seddik Hosny, Merhan Samy Nasr, Moataz M. W. Abd Elfattah, Samar Helmy Abdel Dayem and Rana Hashem Ibrahim
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:60

    The Correction to this article has been published in The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:80

  45. Agranulocytosis is a rare and life-threatening side effect of antithyroid drugs (ATD); it has been reported in < 0.2% of patients, usually within the first 3 months after starting ATD. We present a 62-year-old...

    Authors: Hawa Juma El-Shareif
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:59
  46. Diabetes has become a serious health concern for the global population. An estimated 643 million people will have type 2 diabetes mellitus by the year 2030. A sedentary lifestyle is one of the important risk f...

    Authors: Bhupinder Singh, Yogitha Chowdary Koneru, Holden Zimmerman, Sai Gautham Kanagala, Indigo Milne, Anirudh Sethi and Rohit Jain
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:58
  47. Graves’ disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis worldwide. Patient characteristics may vary according to ethnicity, iodine status, and age. Studies on characterization of Graves’ disease in Egypt ar...

    Authors: Tamer Mohamed Elsherbiny
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:57
  48. Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies have been conducted on clinical features, laboratory parameters, treatment, and anticoagulation therapy. However, there is a scarcity of ...

    Authors: Manthan Prajapati, Madhav Oza, Mansi Bhagat, Mrudangsinh M. Rathod and Mehul Ramanbhai Marwadi
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2023 35:56