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  1. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious complication with complex pathogenesis in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD, with a progressively increasing frequency with a meanwhile ...

    Authors: Ecaterina Luca and Nicolae Bodrug
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:47
  2. The COVID-19 pandemic affected millions of people worldwide, becoming a challenge of every nation. Since the COVID-19 can present wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms, patients with symptoms similar to...

    Authors: Hamid Reza Niazkar, Behdad Zibaee, Seyed Behzad Razavi, Kasra Ghanaeian, Vahid Talebzadeh and Negin Haji Vosugh
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:46
  3. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly associated with respiratory symptoms. However, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are increasingly recognized in COVID-19 patients. The aim is to study the prevalenc...

    Authors: Walaa M. Hashem, Heba Abdelaziz, Dina E. Sallam, Moamen Abdelfadil Ismail and Ahmed Elmetwally Ahmed
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:45
  4. In late 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 has been declared as a global emergency by World Health Organization. Hopefully, recent reports of effective and safe vaccines were welcomed, and approved on emergency ba...

    Authors: Hind A. ElSawi and Ahmed Elborollosy
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:44
  5. Frailty is a clinical condition characterized by increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. Elderly people are screened for frailty as part of preventative care. However, the risk factors for frailty ...

    Authors: Mie Araki, Yuta Takahashi, Yoshiaki Ohyama, Ayumu Nagamine, Emiri Takahashi, Kunihiko Imai, Kunihiko Hayashi, Tetsuya Nakamura, Masahiko Kurabayashi and Kyoko Obayashi
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:42
  6. The devastating adverse effects of interferon (IFN) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) lead to the emerging of direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This investigation was undertaken to assess safet...

    Authors: Radwa Samir Hagag, Morkoss Medhat Fakhry, Ossama Ashraf Ahmed, Shaimaa Abdalaleem Abdalgeleel, Mahasen Aly Radwan and Gina Gamal Naguib
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:40
  7. Stauffer syndrome, first described by Herbert Stauffer in 1961, is a hepatic paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by multiple extrahepatic malignancies, most commonly renal cell carcinoma. The syndrome manife...

    Authors: Sheref A. Elseidy, Ahmed K. Awad, Debvarsha Mandal, Merihan A. Elbadawy and Amir Iqbal
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:39
  8. Isolated involvement of bone marrow in sarcoidosis has not been reported commonly. Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin, characterized by the presence of non-caseating granulomatou...

    Authors: Ashok Grover, Saurabh Puri, Smriti Chabra, Meenal Mehta and Pravas Chand Mishra
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:38
  9. Venous thromboembolism has many risk factors including protein S deficiency, which poses a significant diagnostic challenge as it presents with atypical complaints. A treatable yet potentially fatal condition,...

    Authors: Saurabh Puri, Ashok Kumar Grover, Ankita Kaur Narula, Pankaj Nand Choudhry and Arjun Prem Gupta
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:37
  10. To evaluate the role of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) in diagnosis of vestibular abnormalities among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    Authors: Israa Y El-seady, Mohamed M Abd El-Tawab, Wessam I El-Shawaf and Amr A El-Sehrawy
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:36
  11. Platelets are not only involved in hemostasis and coagulation, but play a significant role in innate immunity and inflammatory response. Excess production of cytokines and acute phase reactants affect megakary...

    Authors: Arundhathi Shankaralingappa, Santosh Tummidi and Thirunavukkarasu Arun Babu
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:35
  12. The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is disseminated by respiratory aerosols. The virus uses the spike protein to target epithelial ce...

    Authors: Josephine Wambani and Patrick Okoth
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:34
  13. Hyperphosphatemia is a common complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and particularly affects hemodialysis (HD) patients. Elevated serum phosphorus contributes to the development of secondary hyperpara...

    Authors: Hanan Mahmoud Ahmed, Esraa Yossif, Alaa S. Abd-Elkader and Essam M. Abdel Aziz
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:33
  14. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a reversible condition, which occurs in response to acute changes in blood pressure due to failure of posterior circulatory autoregulation. Posterior reversible ...

    Authors: Mumbaikar Kausha, Sawant Vishal and S. Kondekar Alpana
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:31
  15. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ahmed R. Elarbagy, Yassein S. Yassein, Mahmoud M. Emara, Ahmed A. Sonbol, Khaled M. A. Elzorkany and Amera A. Sharaf El Deen
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:30

    The original article was published in The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2020 31:Art60

  16. Chronic kidney disease became a public health problem increasing healthcare burden. Our aim was to detect the relationship between cardiovascular risk, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and kidney functio...

    Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Tawfik and Heba Mohamed Tawfik
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:29
  17. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a structural marker and prominent pathological characteristic of chronic progressive kidney disease, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a key fibrogenic cytokine that is ...

    Authors: Amr M. Shaker, Nahal K. Rakha, Amal M. R. El-Shehaby, Tarek Ramzy, Wael M. Hamza and Mohamed M. Elkhatib
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:28
  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast microorganism known to inhabit the gut micro-biome. It is commonly used in the fermentation process of beer, wine, bread making, and is naturally found in soil, plants, and f...

    Authors: Haroon Nawaz, Ayesha A. Choudhry and William Morse
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:27
  19. Hypomagnesemia is a predictor of progression and mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, limited data is available about the prevalence and kidney-related risk factors of hypomagnesemia in...

    Authors: Ayman Riyadh Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Fouad Ahmed, Amr Ahmed Elsantawy and Maher Borai Mohammad
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:25
  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world with a high prevalence in people of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Mediterranean region. Being an X-linked recessi...

    Authors: Rajib Kumar Dey, Ali Abdulla Latheef, Hisham Ahmed Imad and Moosa Murad
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:24
  21. Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Inflammatory bowel disease has always seemed to be rare in the M...

    Authors: Mostafa Abd Alfattah Shamkh, Mohamed Amin Sakr, Waleed Hamed Abd Alaty, Shimaa Youssef Kamel, Mohamed Mahmoud Eltabbakh, Ahmed Fouad Sherief, Heba Rashad and Safaa Askar
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:22
  22. Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is one of the serious medical issues with higher prevalence and mortality rates. As mentioned in several medical reports, most of the chest pain patients, visiting the eme...

    Authors: Mohamed Eid, Ahmed Mohamed Boghdady, Mustafa Mohamed Ahmed and Lotfy Hamed Abu Dahab
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:21
  23. Behçet’s disease gives a challenge to be diagnosed and followed up due to lack of specific biomarkers. MicroRNAs showed relations to different disease states including immunological and inflammatory illnesses....

    Authors: Sally S. Hassouna, Manal Y. Tayel, Ashraf I. Elzawawy, Rowayda M. Amin and Mona Tahoun
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:20
  24. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) still has no solid effective therapy.

    Authors: Mohammed Abdel Monem Saeed, Alaa Hussein Mohamed and Ahmed Hassan Owaynat
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:19
  25. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized the therapy of HCV infection with higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates. Fibrosis regression after achieving SVR to DAA remains to be evaluated i...

    Authors: Ramy H. Agwa, Mohamed H. Elgazzar, Islam A. El-Zayyadi, Ahmed M. Saed, Mayada A. Ghannam and Ahmed Saleh
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:18
  26. Primary IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has variable distribution and clinicopathological spectrum throughout the world. We report the incidence, demographic, and clinicopathological profile of primary IgAN from a tert...

    Authors: Mohammad Ashraf Bhat, Imran Sultan Sofi, Rayees Yousuf Sheikh and Imtiyaz Wani
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:17
  27. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is caused by the regurgitation of gastric contents above the upper esophageal sphincter. Diagnostic gold standard tests like multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) and 24-h du...

    Authors: Manal Sabry, Tarek Mohamed Yosef, Ahmed Mohammed Mahmoud and Tari M. A. George Michael
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:16
  28. Nesfatin-1 as a potent anorexigenic peptide is secreted by pancreatic β cells. Conflicting data are available about its level among diabetic patients. Our study aimed to assess nesfatin-1 levels in newly diagn...

    Authors: Ragaa Abdelshaheed Matta, Sahar Hossam El-Hini, Ahmed Mohamed Saad Eldin Salama and Hend Mohamed Moaness
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:15
  29. Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare condition with fewer than 500 cases reported in the literature although described. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) is often unrecognized cause of hypophosphatemi...

    Authors: Peikai Huang, Mengqiang Xiao, Meng Zhang, Jun Chen, Jingzhi Ye, Meiyi Zhao and Jiahui Tang
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:14
  30. Repeated attacks of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have been attributed to bacterial infections. However, sputum microbiology for identifying the bacteriological profile ...

    Authors: Narayan Mood, Surendar Reddy Katta, Aruna Kumari Badam and Jayaram Chundru
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:13
  31. In India, approximately 75% of population that is over 650 million people have B12 deficiency majority of which is caused by variation in demography, diet, and religion. Conditions such as smoking, alcohol, an...

    Authors: Sangita V. Patel, Alpesh B. Makwana, Archana U. Gandhi, Greenam Tarani, Jesal Patel and Vipul Bhavsar
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:11
  32. Acute hyperglycemia is a common finding in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who present to the emergency department (ED). The prognostic role of hyperglycemia in diabe...

    Authors: Yehia Mostafa Ghanem, Mona Wagdy Ayad, Azza Abdel Kareem, Maged Osama Guirguis, Asmaa Mohamed Alkafafy and Mai Hesham Badrah
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:10
  33. Solid pseudo-papillary neoplasm (SPPN) is a rare type of pancreatic tumor accounting for less than 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Accurate diagnosis of these tumors is very important for proper management. In...

    Authors: Hussein Okasha, Wael Abbas, Ahmed Altonbary, Hazem Hakim, Mahmoud Gamal Ameen and Mohamed El-Nady
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:9
  34. Hepcidin is the central regulatory molecule of systemic iron homeostasis. Serum ferritin, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), female sex hormones, and abdominal fat distribution are related ...

    Authors: Ragaa Abdelshaheed Matta, Mohamed Emad AbdElftah, Mohamed Gaber Essawy and Ahmed Abdelfadel Saedii
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:8
  35. Choledochal cysts (CDCs) are characterized by congenital cystic dilations of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts or both. CDCs are very rarely reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This congenital anomaly of...

    Authors: Chantelli Iamblaudiot Razafindrazoto, Andry Lalaina Rinà Rakotozafindrabe, Sakaiza Malala Randrianambininjanahary, Nitah Harivony Randriamifidy, Domoina Harivonjy Hasina Laingonirina, Sonny Maherison, Lova Hasina Ny Ony Narindra Rajaonarison, Tovo Harimanana Rabenjanahary, Soloniaina Hélio Razafimahefa and Rado Manitrala Ramanampamonjy
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:7
  36. HCV infection is associated with increased risk of ischemic cerebral stroke. HCV stroked patients are younger with a lower burden of classical risk factors and higher levels of systemic inflammation. The prese...

    Authors: Mohammed M. Masoud, Hany A. Sayed, Hatem A. El Masry and Shaimaa A. Abdelkareem
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:6
  37. The deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 259,502,031 confirmed cases with 5,183,003 deaths in 223 countries during the last 22 months (Dec 2019–Nov 2021), whereas approximately 7,702,859,718, vaccine...

    Authors: Waqar Ahmad and Khadija Shabbiri
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:5
  38. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes is cardiovascular disease, which is exacerbated by the presence of hypertension. Therefore, proper control of BP in diabetic hypertensive patients is esse...

    Authors: Lobna F. El Toony, Andrew N. Ramzy and Mohamed A. A. Abozaid
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:4
  39. Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is the strongest known modifiable risk factor for hyperuricemia and gout. We aimed to discover the outcome of serum uric acid (SUA), g...

    Authors: Mona G. Balata, Ahmed H. Helal, Ashraf H. Mohamed, Alaa-Uddin Habib, Mahmoud Awad and Mohamed Sherif
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:3
  40. For many years, esophageal manometry has been used for assessment of upper gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms. Chicago classification is the key for diagnosis and managing motility disorders as it is considered a...

    Authors: Gina Gamal Naguib, Mohamed Hassan, Ahmed I. Elshafie and M. G. Naguib
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:2
  41. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is produced by action of the intestinal flora on tryptophan in protein diet, and it is normally excreted by the kidney. IS is a protein-bound uremic toxin, and it is difficult to be remove...

    Authors: Mohamed Saeed Hassan, Yasser Soliman Ahmed, Eman Ibrahim Sarhaan, Nayra Shaker Mehanna, Norhan Nagdy Madbouli and Mostafa Abdelnasier Abdelgawad
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 34:1
  42. Patients with renal failure suffer from fluid overload which is a risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Therefore, fluid status assessment in patients on regular hemodialysis is very important. Dry weight a...

    Authors: Mohamed Abd El Hamid Hafiz, Emad Allam Mohamed, Mohamed Abo El Naga Mohamed and Mohamed Ahmed El Sayed Ahmed
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:43
  43. JAK (Janus kinase) inhibitors work by inhibiting the activity of one or more of the enzyme Janus kinase with a therapeutic application for treatment of cancer and inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arth...

    Authors: Yasmin Adel, Mohamed Sabry, Amr Mohamed El-Sabbagh and Yousra Sadeq
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:56
  44. Brucellosis is an anthropozoonosis. It is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean basin. The clinical presentation is polymorphic. The osteoarticular form is the most frequent of the focal forms affecting main...

    Authors: Lamia Oulkadi, Bouchra Amine, Imane El binoune, Samira Rostom and Rachid Bahiri
    Citation: The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine 2021 33:55